L-茶氨酸有什么健康益处?

时间:2022-01-27点击次数:820信息来源:

氨基酸L-茶氨酸(γ-N-乙基谷氨酰胺(学名:Xerocomus badius)绿茶和红茶来自同一种植物。红茶是通过发酵制成的,而绿茶没有发酵。绿茶已经成为中药的主要支柱3000多年了。人们用它作为药物和其他草药的浓缩液,旨在增强耐力和注意力。L-茶氨酸的含量取决于茶树的生长地点、生产方法和收获时间。普洱茶等不同种类的茶比著名的山茶更受欢迎L-茶氨酸含量高。还有合成形式L-茶氨酸(Suntheanine?)。

L-茶氨酸广泛应用于亚洲国家对抗各种医学和心理健康问题,并在西方国家迅速普及。** 是茶中的另一种主要成分,可以提高大脑中乙酰胆碱和多巴胺的水平,从而提高注意力、认知和情绪。就认知效益而言,** 比L-茶氨酸的作用更快,因为它后达到血浆峰值水平,摄入更快L-与茶氨酸50分钟后的血浆峰值水平相比。除茶氨酸和 ** 此外,茶还含有其他成分,可能会带来各种健康益处,包括氨基酸 谷氨酰胺、精氨酸、丝氨酸、丙氨酸和酚类化合物表无食子茶素、表无食子酸酯、表无食子茶素、表无食子酸酯(所谓‘儿茶素‘)。抹茶是一种特殊的绿茶产品,比普通绿茶含有更高水平的有益植物化学物质。

动物和人类的研究表明L-茶氨酸可以减少主观压力反应,提高认知能力,优化睡眠,保护慢性病、心血管疾病、肥胖和普通感冒。L-茶氨酸、 ** 各种绿茶成分,包括儿茶素,可能有助于预防代谢综合征和肥胖。L-茶氨酸可以减少活性氧(即自由基)引起的氧化损伤,增加肝脏中谷胱甘肽的浓度,增强超氧化物歧化酶等肝酶清除血液中毒素的能力。结果表明,L-茶氨酸可能有延缓衰老的作用。绿茶中的儿茶素可能具有有益的抗微生物和抗病毒活性。在胃肠道中,绿茶已被证实可以激活细胞中的抗氧化剂,抑制前致癌物的形成。

L-茶氨酸和神经精神疾病

L-茶氨酸已被证实可以改善学习、记忆和认知功能,增强精神任务中的选择性注意力。流行病学研究表明,经常吃茶叶可能与认知下降、情绪改善和应对压力的能力有关。L-茶氨酸可能是一种有前途的精神分裂症增强疗法,可能是情绪障碍、注意力缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)恐慌,强迫症(OCD)有利于双相情感障碍。

研究了安慰剂对照研究L-茶氨酸单独或 ** 结合使用对情绪和认知表现的影响,发现认知功能可能在综合治疗中增强,但单独使用L-茶氨酸没有反应。对茶成分对急性精神病情绪和认知影响的两种分析发现,L-茶氨酸可以改善自我放松,减少主观紧张, ** 可能改善了要求的认知任务的表现,并可能提高了警觉性和活力。

动物研究显示L-茶氨酸能迅速穿过血脑屏障,改善血清素,γ-氨基丁酸和多巴胺的水平,与谷氨酸和 ** A受体结合可能会增加脑源性神经营养因素(BDNF)水平。长期服用L-茶氨酸(即3-4周以上)可能具有一般的神经保护作用,可能是海马体(大脑区域在记忆巩固中发挥核心作用)中脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)合成增加引起的。所有这些影响都被认为可以缓解焦虑。

由于L-茶氨酸通常与 有关** 与茶中的其他生物活性成分一起摄入,大部分研究和调查L-茶氨酸和 ** 对情绪和认知的综合影响。

L-茶氨酸,焦虑和压力

L-通过不同的机制介导茶氨酸的抗焦虑作用,包括改善α-脑波活动,增加γ-氨基丁酸的合成及其作用AMPA弱拮抗剂作用于谷氨酸受体。L-茶氨酸的一般镇静益处反映在α频率范围(8-13Hz)脑电图活动增加。通过脑电图(EEG)测量的脑电活动的变化是剂量依赖性的,类似于冥想中观察到的有益的EEG变化包括枕骨和顶叶区域的增加α波。给200毫克剂量L-茶氨酸后,显示增加的茶氨酸α活动可能持续60分钟,这种效果在具有更高特征焦虑的个体中更为明显。较后,研究发现高摄入量L-绿茶茶氨酸的绿茶可以缓解暴露于慢性应激的小鼠的肾上腺肥大。

根据特定类型的茶中的茶L-茶氨酸和 ** 的相对含量及其制备方法,饮用绿茶以减轻压力或焦虑的个体可能会比 ** 有更大的镇静作用。服用50-200毫克剂量L-茶氨酸通常在30到40分钟内注意到一般的镇静作用,通常持续8到10小时。中度焦虑神经症通常每天服用一次或两次,每次200毫克。更严重的焦虑可能需要每天600毫克到800毫克的剂量,每天100毫克到200毫克。与苯二氮卓类和其他医生开的抗焦虑剂不同,L-茶氨酸可能不会引起嗜睡、反应迟钝或注意力不集中,也可能没有耐受性或依赖性的风险。目前还没有L-有关茶氨酸与精神药剂或其他天然产品之间严重不良副作用或相互作用的报告。

关于状态焦虑L-茶氨酸的研究结果可能会有所不同。结果的差异可能与不同的患者群体有关,一些研究调查了 ** 与L-茶氨酸的组合。安慰剂对照试验L-与苯二氮卓类阿普唑仑相比,茶氨酸200毫克/天可能发现一般抗焦虑作用的证据,但不能缓解实验诱发的状态焦虑。相比之下,另外两份研究报告指出,相同剂量L-茶氨酸的酸的反应,主观压力测量值可能会显著降低,如心率和血压的降低。在为期4周的安慰剂对照试验中(N=30)与安慰剂组相比,无精神疾病的成年人随机接受200毫克/天L-茶氨酸的状态焦虑可能会缓解,睡眠可能会明显改善。16名健康成人志愿者在一项小型安慰剂对照试验中随机分为L-茶氨酸200毫克/天,阿普唑仑1毫克或安慰剂,监测放松和实验诱发的急性焦虑。L-茶氨酸在基线条件下可能有一定的放松作用,但在放松或实验诱发的焦虑状态下,阿普唑仑和L-茶氨酸可能没有比安慰剂更大的抗焦虑作用。

在一项为期10周的安慰剂对照研究中(N=46),D ** -5被诊断为广泛焦虑神经症的成年人随机接受L-茶氨酸(450-900毫克/天)或安慰剂,同时继续其目前的药物治疗。L-茶氨酸组在减少焦虑或优化睡眠方面的表现可能不如安慰剂组。对小型安慰剂的比较研究(N=34)中,18-40岁的健康成年人被给予L-茶氨酸饮料或安慰剂,然后进行多任务认知应激源。与安慰剂组相比,服用饮料1小时后,L-茶氨酸组报告的应激反应可能显着地降低。另一项关于含有L-茶氨酸200毫克、磷脂酰氨酸1毫克、洋甘菊10毫克、甘油磷酸胆碱25毫克的营养饮料发现,主观应激反应可显著降低,血清皮质醇水平可显著降低。

L-茶氨酸等精神疾病

一项安慰剂对照研究发现,每天服用两次L-茶氨酸100毫克可能会显著改善ADHD男孩的睡眠质量意味着L-茶氨酸可能是ADHD的有效辅助疗法。L-茶氨酸不会引起嗜睡,但睡前服用200毫克L-茶氨酸可以通过缓解焦虑来优化睡眠。

新兴研究结果支持L-茶氨酸可能有利于抑郁症和精神疾病的症状。为期8周的开放性研究(N=20)被诊断为重度抑郁症的成年人使用L-茶氨酸250毫克/天的治疗可能会改善情绪、焦虑和睡眠质量。

L-茶氨酸也可能对与精神疾病相关的焦虑有益。一项为期8周的安慰剂对照试验表明,精神分裂症和情绪障碍患者的增加L-茶氨酸剂量可能会降低焦虑水平。在这个群体中增加L-通过皮质醇和脑源性神经营养因子,茶氨酸剂量的有益作用(BDNF)介导的增加。含有神经甾体孕烯醇酮和氨基酸L-茶氨酸的组合疗法可能有利于精神症状。双盲安慰剂对照试验8周(N=40)在成人精神分裂症或分裂情绪障碍对抗精神病药物反应不佳时,随机分为孕烯醇酮(50mg/天)加L-茶氨酸(400毫克/天)或安慰剂,同时继续服用抗精神病药物。研究结束时,与安慰剂组相比,使用孕烯醇酮L-茶氨酸治疗患者精神病阴性症状可显著减少,如情绪迟钝、 ** 缺乏和言语缺乏,焦虑显著减少,一般功能可能得到更多改善。

L-茶氨酸脑血管疾病和中风

动物研究结果表明,L-茶氨酸可能有助于预防脑血管疾病,减少脑血管事故(即中风)的影响。短暂性脑缺血后L-茶氨酸的神经保护可能与之相同AMPA谷氨酸受体拮抗剂的作用与实验诱发的脑缺血复发前使用有关。L-茶氨酸(0.处理3-1mg/kg的大鼠可能会显著减少空间记忆障碍和神经细胞衰亡。

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Lake博士是美国亚利桑那大学医学院精神病学和行为医学系的一名获得学校董事会认证的精神病学家和临床助理教授。他创立并主持了美国精神病学协会的补充医学、传统医学和综合医学核心小组。他撰写了五本关于综合性精神保健的教科书,并定期为《精神病学时报》撰稿。他的出版物包括一系列关于情绪和心理障碍综合管理的10个简明指南。他较近出版的一本书《心理健康护理的综合典范:塑造未来的想法和方法》于2019年5月发布,可以在Lake博士的网站 上以电子书和印刷品的形式获得。

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